What is Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Common Applications

How do machines interpret our digital chatter? What enables them to comprehend a flood of emails, video calls, or quick chatbot queries? Enter natural language processing (NLP). This technological marvel bridges the divide between human language and machine understanding. 

NPL’s influence isn’t limited to consumer touchpoints. In the corporate sphere, businesses deploy NLP to enhance operational workflows, foster improved communication pathways, and extract meaningful insights from vast pools of textual data. Whether you’re tapping into a translation app, following GPS voice directions, or initiating a conversation with a customer service bot, NLP is working behind the scenes.

But how does NPL work? What are some of its real-world applications? This post offers a comprehensive guide into this technological development. 

How natural language processing works

Natural language processing (NLP) teaches computers to comprehend, dissect, and construct language. Consider chatbots, transcription services, or voice search – NLP is their engine.

Once, this term meant a computer’s reading skill. Today, it spans all facets of computational linguistics. Two noteworthy subfields are natural language generation (NLG), where computers generate content, and natural language understanding (NLU), which deciphers typos, language variations, and casual speech.

NLP leans on machine learning, sifting through text to grasp how we structure language and convey intent. It delves into grammar, day-to-day speech patterns, and beyond. This exploration lets algorithms identify patterns. For example, if a tool translates “She loves the beach” in Spanish as “Ella ama la playa,” it might start “She loves the mountains” similarly, only needing the specific term for “mountains” to complete its task.

Core methods of NPL

Natural language processing functions through a blend of intricate procedures, from statistical models to deep learning mechanisms, each layer adding depth to textual comprehension. Here’s a rundown:

  • Sentiment analysis: Here, programs harness natural language understanding to decode emotions in text, identifying if the sentiment is negative, positive, or neutral.
  • Tagging and categorizing: By using part-of-speech tagging, systems classify words as nouns, verbs, and more, ensuring proper interpretation. Especially crucial when a word’s meaning varies based on context, this approach, also known as semantic analysis or word sense disambiguation, zeroes in on a sentence’s core message.
  • Name and entity recognition: NLP tasks spot and segregate specifics, such as personal names, locations, or brand names. The subsequent step, ‘coreference resolution’, matches related words or terms, clarifying references like ‘Tim/Him or Car/BMW and even deciphering metaphors.
  • Speech-to-text: This method transforms spoken words into written format. While NLP might not be always at play here, it proves invaluable in making sense of our often-erratic verbal expressions. It’s worth noting that NLP isn’t exclusive to spoken content; it deals with written text with equal finesse.

Advantages of NPL

Leveraging natural language processing is an excellent way to improve your business processes. Its main advantages relate to: 

Efficient data handling

Integrating NLP into software solutions streamlines the conversion of vast data streams into actionable insights. As an example, cutting-edge platforms can transcribe a whopping 1,000 audio hours in a mere 60 minutes. These systems also fast-track customer sentiment analysis across interactions and simplify tasks like post-call reports in call centers, enabling professionals to prioritize their core duties.

Holistic customer engagement 

NLP doesn’t merely scratch the surface of interactions. It dives deep, uncovering subtopics and spearheading root cause analyses. Be it emails, calls, or reviews on third-party platforms, NLP tools discern customer challenges by dissecting human language intricacies.

Optimal support center operations 

Modern tools elevate support center dynamics. They audit service calls, dissect the nuances of conversations, and subsequently grade agent performance. Celebrations follow triumphs, while insights into improvement areas become invaluable training assets.

Business evolution 

Incorporating NLP into customer service platforms amasses a treasure of human language data. This treasure trove expedites trend spotting and historical reviews. Furthermore, the sheer speed of text and call evaluations allows businesses to swiftly respond to issues, refining a myriad of operations, from frontline training to gauging a new ad campaign’s reception.

Enhanced chatbot interactions 

A chatbot without comprehension misses the mark. But, empower them with NLP, and what emerges are chatbots that not only understand but also converse fluently in multiple languages. They discern the emotional undertone of messages and even decode the sentiment behind emojis.

Examples of natural language processing

You might think of futuristic robots when you hear “AI” or “NLP”. But, we already see examples of NLP in our everyday lives. Here are some easy-to-understand examples:

Smart Assistants 

Devices like Alexa or Siri understand our voice. When we ask Siri a question, she understands and gives relevant answers. We’re seeing more of these devices in our homes. They help with tasks and even crack jokes sometimes. For instance, Alexa is becoming a common name in many homes.


Email Filters 

Early email filters spotted spam by hunting for certain words. Today, Gmail does more. It sorts emails into folders like primary, social, or promotions by understanding their content. This helps Gmail users keep their inboxes tidy.

Predictive Text 

Our phones try to guess what we’ll say next. They suggest words and even change some to make the message clear. Over time, they learn from us. Some folks even create sentences using only these suggestions.

Language Translation 

Remember trying to cheat on your Spanish homework and the translation made no sense? Translators have improved. Online tools now offer accurate and grammatically correct translations. They even detect which language you’re typing.

Digital Phone Calls 

Ever heard, “this call may be recorded for training”? Most times, companies use these calls to teach their software to be better. They also use chatbots to give useful information to customers.

Search Results 

When you use Google, it’s trying to understand you, not just your words. Type in a flight number and you’ll get the flight’s status. Google helps you without making you search perfectly.

Text Analytics 

Brands use tools to understand what people say about them online. This helps them see how a campaign performs or spot issues they need to address. Brands can see trends, understand customer feelings, and make better decisions.

Data Analysis 

People are using simple language to explore and visualize data. This makes data analysis more accessible to everyone, not just experts.  

NLP: Redefining user experience (UX) design

Natural Language Processing (NLP) is more than a tool to decode languages. It’s an instrument that changes the way users interact with digital platforms. With more online touchpoints, user experiences (UX) matter more than ever. NLP provides a human touch to digital interactions.

Dynamic content curation: more than algorithms

Personalized content recommendations are not a novelty. However, with NLP, they gain depth. Platforms like Netflix or Spotify analyze user reviews and comments to refine recommendations. Consider a user tweeting, “Binged ‘Stranger Things’ and want more 80s vibes!” An NLP system can suggest 80s themed content based on this insight.

Inclusive digital designs

NLP can help create a more inclusive digital world. For users with visual impairments, web navigation can be hard. NLP can help with speech-to-text and text-to-speech conversions. Platforms can ‘speak’ content and understand spoken commands. For example, a user might command, “Read out the latest news headlines.” An NLP system processes this and filters news based on user preferences.

 NPL across industries

Natural language processing also has a variety of use cases across industries. Below are a few that have emerged in the past few years.


Education has evolved with the advent of e-learning platforms. NLP takes it a step further by personalizing learning experiences. Imagine a student reading a digital textbook. They stumble upon a complex topic and comment, “I don’t understand this part.” NLP tools can detect such feedback and instantly suggest supplementary resources or simpler explanations.

Interactive tools, like Duolingo, use NLP. They correct user inputs not just based on grammar, but on context. For instance, if someone learning Spanish writes, “I eat apple,” the tool knows to suggest “an apple” instead of just flagging a grammar error.


The online shopping experience has vastly grown from simply browsing and clicking. Virtual shopping assistants, powered by NLP, can enhance user experience. Suppose a user types, “Looking for summer dresses under $50.” NLP doesn’t just identify keywords like “summer dresses” and “$50.” It understands the intent, offering results that are seasonally appropriate and budget-friendly.

Additionally, customer reviews are a goldmine for e-commerce platforms. A user might write, “The fabric feels itchy.” NLP tools can extract such feedback, allowing businesses to address product quality issues or even refine product descriptions to be more transparent.


Digital advertising

Digital ads are ubiquitous. The challenge? Making them more engaging and less intrusive. NLP can help in understanding user reactions to ads. If a user comments, “This ad is too loud,” it’s not just about volume. NLP discerns it’s possibly about the ad’s tone, content, or music.

Interactive ads, where users can pose questions, are on the rise. Someone might ask, “Does it come in blue?” or “Is there a vegan option?” NLP processes such questions, offering immediate answers and increasing user engagement.

NPL software

When developing applications like chatbots, voice assistants, or predictive text systems that have NLP at their heart, you’ll need robust software tools. Technology Evaluation Centers have listed some of the top contenders in this domain:

  • Mallet: This Java-based, open-source tool is dedicated to statistical NLP. It offers a range of functions from document classification to topic modeling and information extraction. The primary development took place at the University of Massachusetts Amherst.
  • Google Cloud Translation: This API leverages NLP to first identify the language of the source text and then employs neural machine translation to convert the text into another language. What’s more, users can embed this feature into their proprietary applications.
  • SpaCy: Designed specifically for production rather than research, SpaCy is an open-source software for sophisticated natural language processing. Under the MIT license, it caters to high-tier data science requirements, enabling in-depth data exploration.
  • Amazon Comprehend: An offering from Amazon, this service is user-friendly and doesn’t necessitate prior machine learning expertise. Its main purpose is to derive insights from various textual sources like emails, customer feedback, social media posts, and support tickets. By deploying sentiment analysis, part-of-speech identification, and tokenization, it deciphers the motivations behind the text.
  • Natural Language Toolkit (NLTK): This is a free, open-source platform tailored for building Python applications that handle human language data. It emerged from the Department of Computer and Information Science at the University of Pennsylvania. Key features of NLTK include access to over 50 corpora and lexical resources, a collection of text processing libraries, and interfaces for various natural language processing libraries. It even provides a discussion forum for users and developers. The toolkit is available under the Apache 2.0 license.
  • ChatGPT by OpenAI: ChatGPT is a model from OpenAI’s GPT (Generative Pre-trained Transformer) series. It stands out for its conversational abilities. This model generates human-like text based on the input it receives. It can engage in conversations, answer questions, and handle many NLP tasks. Its strength lies in understanding context and producing coherent responses. By integrating ChatGPT into applications, developers can enhance user interactions. It also adds a sophisticated touch to chatbot capabilities.


Natural language processing stands as a disruptive technology, driving human-computer interaction to new heights. It’s not just about understanding language; it’s about bridging the gap between human expression and computational responsiveness. Here’s a quick recap of the NPL discussion:

  • NLP enables computers to comprehend, dissect, and construct human language.
  • Two key subfields: natural language generation (NLG) and natural language understanding (NLU).
  • NLP leverages machine learning to understand language structure and intent.
  • Core methods: sentiment analysis, tagging, name/entity recognition, speech-to-text conversion.
  • Benefits for businesses include efficient data handling, holistic customer engagement, improved support center operations, actionable business insights, and enhanced chatbot interactions.
  • Smart assistants (e.g., Alexa, Siri), email filters, predictive text, language translation tools, phone call analytics, search results optimization are some of the real-world examples of NPL.
  • NLP enhances user experience (UX) design through dynamic content curation, inclusive designs, and personalized interactions.
  • Industry applications include education (e.g., personalized e-learning), e-commerce (e.g., virtual shopping assistants), and digital advertising (e.g., interactive ads).

This in-depth exploration underscores the transformative role of NLP in both everyday applications and industry-specific solutions.